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At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases on the continent was still modest. But predictions and projections suggested the disease would permeate Africa.

The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa sounded in April 2020 Alarm bell: “Over 300,000 to 3.3 million Africans could lose their lives as a direct result of COVID-19, depending on the interventions that have been taken to stop the spread.”

The Regional Office of the World Health Organization for Africa forecast that up to 190,000 people could die in the first year of the pandemic if COVID-19 were not controlled in Africa.

Twelve months later, most of these terrible predictions were not realized. Until the end of April 2021 The total number of COVID-19 cases in Africa was 4,431,639, with 117,934 deaths reported. South Africa alone accounts for around a third of the number of cases, but almost 50% of the deaths. Indeed, 117,943 deaths are tragic. But the number is nowhere near as high as some predicted.

Many possible theories for this comparatively modest outbreak are being circulated. One theory points to atypical in Africa young population– Young people are less at risk of severe COVID-19 and hospitalization. Another theory is that African populations may have genetic resistance to the coronavirus. Some think that the widespread use of pharmaceutical treatments and vaccines for children such as anti-malarial drugs and the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccines for children could play a role, and others point to the continent’s lower population density.

In our last paper We are investigating the possible links between SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 disease and diet. Strong Malnutrition is the most common Cause of immunodeficiency In the developing countries.

We have focused on malnutrition leading to deficiency Leptinas seen in protein-energy malnutrition, a lack of dietary protein despite adequate caloric intake. Protein malnutrition is a global problem, and while the condition has been declining in Asia, African nations have a further increase. Leptin is a hormone this is done in the fat cells of the body and has several roles in that immune system.

Leptin deficiency caused by malnutrition certainly does not protect a person from infection by the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. However, based on the work of others in molecular medicine and immunology, we suggest that this could counter the damage caused by the excessive inflammation that occurs in COVID-19 disease. Of course, this would not be a reason to relax efforts to combat all forms of malnutrition.

Leptin increases the body’s response to inflammatory cytokines – proteins that regulate inflammation. Obese COVID-19 positive patients tend to have higher levels of leptin. High levels of leptin have been linked to severe COVID-19. Hence the influence of leptin on the immune system and its Correlation with COVID-19 progression and severity could also make it a valuable biomarker in predicting patient outcomes.

Diet, Leptin, and the Immune System

Malnutrition includes Malnutrition (wasting, shortening, underweight), insufficient vitamins or minerals, overweight and obesity. We know that Malnutrition has been linked to changes in the immune system – this is particularly true of protein malnutrition.

The immune system of people with a balanced diet responds to infection by releasing cytokines. These are signaling molecules that instruct the immune system to attack invading microbes. Most often the attack takes the form of inflammation. Once the invading microbes are eliminated from the body, the inflammation will go away and the body will return to normal. This careful balance between activating and deactivating the inflammatory response is critical to the normal functioning of the body.

As we learned last year, in many severe COVID-19 cases, the immune system creates spikes in cytokines known as a Cytokine storm. This leads to a persistent hyperinflammatory response that does more harm than good when it attacks the organs of the body.

In people with low leptin levelsB. in patients with protein malnutrition, the immune system produces more anti-inflammatory cytokines and less inflammatory.

This shift in the immune response in favor of an anti-inflammatory profile would theoretically counteract the dire consequences of the hyperinflammatory reaction that often occurs in severe COVID-19 cases that can damage the patient’s organs.

But it’s also possible that this anti-inflammatory response masks the symptoms of malnourished people infected with COVID-19. You seem more likely to have a mild to moderate cold or flu than COVID-19. This means that the real number of COVID-19 infections may be underestimated and contribute to the transmission of the disease because people do not know they are infected.

looking ahead

Have international bans highlighted issues related to food insecurity. This includes consuming the right amount of the right nutrients.

Here we theorize that a lack of leptin caused by malnutrition could protect against serious deaths related to COVID-19 and COVID-19. This could be another reason we are seeing fewer COVID-19 deaths than expected in Africa.

But even if this is true, we shouldn’t ignore the fact that Malnutrition kills millions and we should not hold back efforts to eradicate food insecurity around the world.

Why is obesity so common in COVID-19 patients?

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Quote: Poor diet changes the way a body fights infection, including COVID-19 (2021 May 13), accessed May 13, 2021 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-05-poor -nutrition-body-infection-covid- .html

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